Key Terminology

As an introduction to Section B of the exam and to prepare us for the upcoming course, our teacher went through the key terminology that we need to know in order to understand and excel in this area of the examination in Summer…

  • Horizontal Integration: is an example of a partnership model. Companies which are on the same level of the industry, merge together in order to succeed. In the world of media, an example of this would be two production companies coming together to create a film.
  • Vertical Integration: The term to describe larger companies in control of every aspect of their business. An example of this is Apple because they own each aspect involved within production, distribution and consumption of their company; this has given them huge power and success.
  • Theatrical Exhibition: When films were in the beginning stages, they were shown in theatres as these were the most practical areas for a large number of people to watch something on a screen. From this, cinemas are often referred to as ‘Movie Theatres’. Theatrical Exhibition is simply a term for the displaying of films in a cinema/theatre.
  • Non-Theatrical Exhibition: The term used to describe watching a film from any source, except at a cinema or theatre. An example of this could be watching a film on Netflix on your mobile phone as this is not taking place in a cinema/theatre.
  • Guerilla Filmmaking: A way of making an independent film using props and equipment to a low budget. The term covers the idea that in the modern day and age, with more common and improved technology, anyone could make a film.
  • Technological Convergence: The term to describe existing technologies coming together to create an edited and more up to date technology.
  • Symbiosis: When companies come together in order to receive benefits for both parties involved.
  • Synergy: The term to describe two or more companies coming together in order to achieve a goal or objective that they could not have achieved independently.
  • Technological Disruption: Where a new technology is so much better than the old technology and so ruins/replaces the previous version. An example of this is when in 2007 Apple introduced their first iPhone; this day caused chaos for companies such as Blackberry and Nokia as everyone wanted the new and improved technology.
  • Media Ownership: The term used to describe the process of owning and delivering multi-media.
  • Media Conglomerates: The term to describe the larger companies that control everything. An example of this is Fox in America as this company holds huge control over the nation.
  • Concentration of Ownership: When larger companies buy smaller companies resulting in the majority of things being owned by said larger companies.
  • Targeted Advertising: Where advertising is chosen specifically for the audience seeing it. For example, an advert for a new toy or Disney film on a children’s television channel or programme as the product involved has a target audience of the people watching the specific channel/programme.
  • Un-Targeted Advertising: Advertising that is not directed at a specific target audience. An example of this could be a poster at a bus stop or a billboard on the streets.
  • Cross Media Ownership/Convergence: A term to describe when a larger company owns various different media products, for example Disney.
  • “The Big Six”: The six main companies that control everything…

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  • Distribution: The act of getting a film to the audience.
  • Exhibition: The showing of a film to the audience, for example a cinema.
  • “The Lionsgate Twenty”: The $20 million spent on advertising.
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